Terms: Neighborhood Character, Social Reproduction, Urban Public Space.
If Social Reproduction is the process by which societies reproduce themselves, and by which immigrants adapt to new countries, then its product in a particular district is Neighborhood Character. The interaction between the physical space (streets, buildings, infrastructure, public space) of a neighborhood and its inhabitants (culture, politics, economics) produces Neighborhood Character. This is a process that occurs primarily in the public spaces of a neighborhood, which are streets and open spaces or parks.
Synthesis: This process is the means by which society reproduces itself by replacement of people and institutions similar to the original. Society can be considered a superorganism that evolves.
In the case of Ethnic Enclaves, immigrants build an adapted version of how they lived in their original countries in order to survive in a foreign place by the most familiar means. The process of adaptation, according to Christopher Smith and John Logan, also affects specific spaces or neighborhoods because Social Reproduction occurs in particular localities over a period of time. Buildings and streets begin to physically manifest Social Reproduction as the new social networks develop and Social Capital (discussed by Jane Jacobs) accrues.
Christopher Smith and John Logan: “[S]ocial reproduction … includes changes in social habits, beliefs, and values. … All households generate unique strategies in this endeavor, but there are some observable commonalities. Law and Wolch, for example, describe four ‘agencies of provision’ from which households can assemble the resources they need: the state (which provides the basic infrastructure for daily living, as well as welfare services for those in need);the formal and informal sectors of the labor market (where jobs and incomes are attainable); the community (which usually provides a range of formal and informal services); and the wide array of social supports offered locally and regionally by friends, neighbors, family members and coethnics.
“The struggle to survive in the competitive arena of the immigrant neighborhood also has a distinct spatial component. The residents and the “agencies of provision” are rooted in a particular locality, and the sum total of survival strategies adopted by different households within the neighborhood will contribute to and in fact will constitute the transformation of the local urban landscape.”
Paul Gingrich (?) For Sociology 304: “Reproduction is used in a number of ways in sociology. In each of the uses, it means the replacement of people or structures with a new set similar to the original, such that the social system can continue. A basic definition of reproduction is “producing again” or “making a copy.” Reproduction in the Oxford English Dictionary is the “Action or process of forming, creating, or bringing into existence again.”
URBAN PUBLIC SPACE
Synthesis: Combining the definitions of Urban, Public and Space, Urban Public Space refers to a specific, delimited area that is open to general observation, not concealed, not private; can affect the concerns of the adjacent community; can be occupied by particular things or people; and is located in an urban atmosphere.
R. Deutsche: “Abstract space is also a vehicle for state domination, subordination, and surveillance. According to Lefebvre, it possesses a distinctive combination of three features. Abstract space is homogeneous or uniform so that it can be used, manipulated, controlled, and exchanged. Within the homogeneous whole, which spreads over vast areas, it is fragmented into interchangeable parts, so that, as a commodity, it can be bought and sold. Abstract space is, further, hierarchically ordered, divided into centers and peripheries, upper- and lower-status spaces, spaces of the governing and governed. All three features require that space be objectified and universalized, submitted to an abstract measure… “The dominant space, that of the spaces of richness and power, is forced to fashion the dominated spaces, that of the periphery. “ The relegation of groups of people and particular uses of space to enclosed areas outside the center produces an “explosion of spaces.” Thus, through homogenization, a multitude of differences become available to perception as abstract space imposes itself on the space of everyday life. This process embodies a further contradiction, that between the production of space for profit and control-abstract space-and for social reproduction-the space of everyday life, which is both created by and yet escapes the generalizations of exchange. Abstract space represents, then, the unstable subordination of integrated social space by a centralized space of power. Because space is essential to daily life, the space of domination is resisted by what Lefebvre terms the “appropriation” of space for individual and social purposes.”
 Christopher Smith and John Logan. “Flushing 2000: Geographic Explorations in Asian New York.” in From Urban Enclave to Ethnic Suburb, ed. Wei Li. (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i, 2006), 43.
 “Sociology 304/Notes for February 24, 1998/Social Reproduction.” Last edited February 22,1998. Course website for “Sociology 304 – Winter 1998/Issues in Modern Sociological Theory” Taught by Professor Paul Gingrich at University of Regina/Department of Sociology and Social Studies. <http://uregina.ca/~gingrich/feb2498.htm> accessed 11/27/2010.
 Rosalyn Deutsche. “Uneven Development: Public Art in New York City. October 47 (Cambridge, Mass.) (1988) p. 27-28.